LITERATURE


Textos como el Popol Vuh, Rabinal Achi y el Memorial de Tecpán-Atitlán fueron escritos después de la conquista, en lenguas indígenas con caracteres latino, y luego traducidas al español y distribuidas por distintos países de Centroamérica. La figura mayor en destaque en letras guatemaltecas es Miguel Ángel Asturias, que recibió en 1967 el Premio Nobel de literatura. Su interés por las raíces del pueblo se expresa en todas sus obras con frecuentes alusiones a mitos indígenas.

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MIGUEL ANGEL ASTURIAS


The Nobel Prize in Literature 1967, for the novel “El Señor Presidente”
During his stay in Paris from 1923 to 1933, Asturias wrote his novel “El Señor Presidente” (The President).
In 1966 Asturias was awarded the Lenin Peace Prize.

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POPOL VUH


Popol Vuh (also Popol Wuj or Popul Vuh) is a cultural narrative that recounts the mythology and history of the K'iche' people who inhabit the Guatemalan Highlands northwest of present-day Guatemala City. The Popol Vuh is a creation narrative written by the K'iche' people before the Spanish conquest of Guatemala,[2] originally preserved through oral tradition until approximately 1550 when it was written down. The survival of the Popol Vuh is credited to the 18th century Dominican friar Francisco Ximénez who made a copy of the original text in Spanish The name "Popol Vuh" translates as "Book of the Community", "Book of Counsel", or more literally as "Book of the People". The Popol Vuh includes the Mayan creation myth, beginning with the exploits of the Hero Twins Hunahpú and Xbalanqué.] As with similar texts (Chilam Balam, being one example), a great deal of the Popol Vuh's significance lies in the scarcity of early accounts dealing with Mesoamerican mythologies due to the purging of documents by the Spanish Conquistadors. The Popol Vuh (from the K'iche 'popol wuj:' book of the council 'or' book of the community ', of popol,' meeting ',' community ',' common house ',' junta 'and the like; and wuj, 'libro') is a compilation of mythical, legendary and historical narratives of the K'iche 'people, the Guatemalan Mayan people with the largest population. The book, of great historical and spiritual value, has been called Sacred Book or the Bible of the Mayas K'iche '. It is composed of a series of stories that try to explain the origin of the world, of civilization, of various phenomena that occur in nature, etc.

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Enrique Gómez Carrillo


Escribió alrededor de 80 libros, de géneros variados, aunque destacan principalmente sus crónicas internacionales, en las que ejercitó una prosa realmente modernista. Es famoso también por su vida bohemia y viajera; fue conocido en su tiempo alrededor del mundo de habla francesa y castellana como el príncipe de los cronistas



Historians


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Rafael Arévalo Martínez


(1884-1975)

Poeta, escritor, ensayista y dramaturgo, considerado uno de los antecesores del realismo mágico.22 Es uno de los escritores guatemaltecos más reconocidos de la «generación



Rafael Arévalo Martínez 


(1906-1980)

Poeta, escritor, ensayista y dramaturgo, considerado uno de los antecesores del realismo mágico. Es uno de los escritores guatemaltecos más reconocidos de la generación del.

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Federico Hernández de León


(1883-1959)

Historiador, escritor y periodista. Activo políticamente, fue apresado durante los últimos años del gobierno del licenciado Manuel Estrada Cabrera, encontrándose recluido en la Penitenciaría Central de Guatemala cuando cayó el presidente el 14 de abril de 1920. Tras su liberación, entró directamente a hacerse cargo del Diario de Centro América, periódico semioficial de Guatemala en ese entonces. Posteriormente, editó el periódico Nuestro Diario, aguerrido periódico que dirigió junto a Carlos Bauer Avilés. Se caracterizó por publicar numerosas efemérides de la historia guatemalteca, en un sencillo ameno y tendencia abiertamente liberal.

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P . Héctor Gaitán


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Agustín Gómez


(1838-1908)

Jurisconsulto e historiador, hijo del diplomático, jurista, escritor y periodista Ignacio Gómez y padre del escritor Enrique Gómez Carrillo. Fue rector de la Universidad Nacional, Alcalde de la Ciudad de Guatemala en 1899 y miembro de la Real Academia Española.

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Carlos Wyld Ospina


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Ramón Aceña Durán


(1895-1945)

 Farmacéutico, poeta, dramaturgo y periodista. Perteneció a la Generación de 1920 y escribía bajo el seudónimo El Príncipe Feliz. Fue director en jefe del periódico Excélsior en México, y Secretario de la Universidad Nacional de Guatemala. Publicó diversos libros y obras.

Humberto Akabal 


(1952-2019)

Poeta de la etnia maya k'iche'. Piensa y escribe sus poemas en idioma k'iche' y se autotraduce al español. En la actualidad es uno de los poetas guatemaltecos más conocidos en Europa y Sudamérica. Sus obras han sido traducidas al francés, inglés, alemán, italiano, portugués, hebreo, árabe, escocés, húngaro y estonio.

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José Batres Montúfar


(1809-1844)

Escritor, político, ingeniero y militar que nació en la ciudad de San Salvador. Provenía de la vieja alcurnia de familias coloniales. Se le ha llamado el mejor poeta guatemalteco del siglo xix, por su obra intelectual sin parangón en las letras de ese tiempo en Guatemala, sólo comparable a lo que consiguió en la prosa el novelista José Milla y Vidaurre, promotor de la difusión de las composiciones de Batres Montúfar, prontamente olvidadas incluso en las décadas siguientes a su deceso. Entre muchos de los escritores que lo mencionaron, como Menéndez y Pelayo y José Martí, el célebre erudito de la literatura hispanoamericana Pedro Henríquez Ureña dijo de él: «El mejor de los poetas dotados del don del humo

Otto René Castillo


(1936–1967)

Poeta, activista y combatiente guerrillero guatemalteco. Es conocido por su poema Vamos patria, a caminar.

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Alaíde Foppa


(1914-1980)

Poetisa, escritora, feminista, crítica de arte, profesora y traductora. de ascendencia guatemalteca por parte de madre y argentina por la vía paterna. Vivió como exiliada en México, país donde se casó con Alfonso Solorzano, también guatemalteco, en donde nacieron tres de sus cinco hijos, y en donde escribió gran parte de su obra poética. Tuvo un hijo con el presidente Juan José Arévalo en la década de 1940. Durante la década de 1970 algunos de sus hijos se involucraron con la guerrilla guatemalteca, específicamente con el Ejército Guerrillero de los Pobres (EGP). El año 1980 sería trágico para la familia de Alaíde Foppa: su hijo Juan Pablo, quien militaba en el Ejército Guerrillero de los Pobres (EGP) de la guerrilla guatemalteca murió en Nebaj, El Quiché, su esposo Alfonso Solórzano murió atropellado en la ciudad de México y ella misma fue secuestrada y desaparecida en Guatemala.

Rafael Landívar


(1731-1793)

Poeta y sacerdote jesuita guatemalteco que describió a la Guatemala colonial del siglo xviii en sus versos en latín de Rusticatio Mexicana.

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Mario Monteforte Toledo


(15 September 1911 – 4 September 2003)

Mario Monteforte Toledo (15 September 1911 – 4 September 2003) was a Guatemalan writer, dramatist, and politician. Born in Guatemala City, he played important roles in the governments of both Juan José Arévalo and Jacobo Arbenz, including periods as Ambassador to the United Nations between 1946 and 1947, as a deputy in the National Congress from 1947 to 1951, and being both President of the Congress and Vice-President between 1948 and 1949 before retiring from politics in 1951. With the fall of the Arbenz administration in 1954, Monteforte went into exile in Mexico until 1987.

A master of narrative prose, in 1993, Mario Monteforte was awarded the Guatemala National Prize in Literature for his body of work. He died of heart disease in Guatemala City.

Novels
Anaité (1948)
Entre la piedra y la cruz (1948)
Donde acaban los caminos (1952)
Una manera de morir (1958)
Llegaron del mar (1966)
Los desencontrados (1977)
Unas vísperas muy largas (1996)
Los adoradores de la muerte (2000)

Short stories
La cueva sin quietud (1949)
Cuentos de derrota y esperanza (1962)
Casi todos los cuentos (anthology) (1982
Pascualito (children's story) (1991)
La isla de las navajas (1993)
Cuentos de la Biblia (2001)

Essays
Guatemala. Monografía sociológica (1959–1965)
Las piedras vivas (1965)
Centroamérica, subdesarrollo y dependencia (1973)
Mirada sobre Latinoamérica (1975)
Literatura, ideología y lenguaje (1983)
Los signos del hombre (1984)
Las formas y los días - El barroco en Guatemala (1989)
Palabras del retorno (1992).

Rodrigo Rey Rosa


Rodrigo Rey Rosa (born November 4, 1958) is a Guatemalan writer.

Rey Rosa was born in Guatemala City in 1958 into a middle-class family. He recalled that in his childhood he travelled extensively with his parents throughout Mexico and Central America, as well as through Europe. It wasn't until the age of eighteen that he travelled alone, just after finishing high school, to London, Germany (where he had to work to earn money to continue his travels), and Spain.

Upon his return, he lived one further year in Guatemala before leaving (in 1979) because of unrest, and emigrated to New York. There he enrolled at the School of Visual Arts, attracted by its summer writing workshop with Paul Bowles in Tangier. In1980, during his first trip to this North African country he met Paul Bowles, who translated his first three works into English. Among his novels and stories translated into several languages ​​include El cuchillo del mendigo (1986); Still water (1992); Jail of trees (1992); What dreamed Sebastian (1994), whose film adaptation directed by himself was presented at the Sundance Festival in 2004; The good lame (Alfaguara, 1995); That they kill me if ... (1996); No sacred place (1998); The African Shore (1999); Enchanted stones (Seix Barral, 2001); Caballeriza (Seix Barral, 2006); The human material (Anagrama, 2009) and Severina (Alfaguara, 2011)

Rey Rosa has based many of his writings and stories on legends and myths that are indigenous to Latin American as well as North Africa..Awards and honours

Miguel Ángel Asturias National Prize in Literature

2014 Best Translated Book Award, one of two runners-up for The African Shore, translated from the Spanish by Jeffrey Gray

Works
1986 El cuchillo del mendigo (The Beggar's Knife)
1991 Cárcel de árboles (The Pelicari Project)
1992 Cárcel de árboles. El salvador de buques
1993 El salvador de buques
1994 Lo que soñó Sebastián
1996 Con cinco barajas
1996 El cojo bueno (The Good Cripple)
1997 Que me maten si…
1998 Ningún lugar sagrado
1999 La orilla africana (The African Shore)
2001 Piedras encantadas
2001 El tren a Travancore
2006 Caballeriza
2007 Otro zoo
2008 Siempre juntos y otros cuentos
2009 El material humano
2011 Severina
2012 Los sordos

Many of Rey Rosa's texts have been translated into other languages, including English, Italian, German, Dutch, Portuguese, and Japanese.

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Virgilio Rodríguez Macal


(1916-1964)

Virgilio Rodríguez Macal (June 28, 1916 – February 13, 1964) was a Guatemalan writer, journalist, and diplomat who won various international and national prizes. As a novelist he is noted for integrating his deep knowledge of Mesoamerican and Guatemalan history and geography into his stories, often setting his novels in colourful Guatemalan jungle settings including its biologically rich flora and fauna.

Macal was born on June 28, 1916 in Guatemala City. He is considered one of the most popular novelists in Central American literature. Many of his works are based in the departments of Alta Verapaz and Baja Verapaz and are noted for displaying his factual knowledge of the fauna and traditions and the richness of his characters and locations.

His most acclaimed work is his novel La mansión del pájaro serpiente which has been translated into several languages. His personality, like that of men born in the early decades of the twentieth century, was influenced by the long dictatorship of Jorge Ubico, the revolution of 1944 and by the so-called liberation movements which occurred in 1954.

Macal also served some time as a diplomat, and was a consul in Barcelona, Spain. Later Rodriguez Macal, settled in Santiago, Chile for many years, and was a frequent collaborator of the great newspaper El Mercurio. Later, residing in Guatemala, he was the director of Diario de Centroamérica.

Noted books
Guayacán
El mundo del misterio verde
La mansión del pájaro serpiente
Carazamba

Works
La mansión del pájaro serpiente°
El mundo del misterio
Carazamba
Jinaya
Guayacán
Negrura
Sangre y clorofila

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César Brañas Guerra


(1899–1976)

César Brañas Guerra (b. 13 December 1899; d. 22 February 1976), Guatemalan poet, journalist, and writer, and one of the founders of the influential Guatemalan daily El Imparcial (1922–1985). Born in Antigua, Brañas was the best-known of a family of important literary figures. His father was an immigrant from Galicia and his mother a schoolteacher in Antigua. His prolific output of poetry, novels, historical works, and critical essays was highly influential in mid-twentieth-century Guatemala. Like Miguel Ángel Asturias, he contributed to a social consciousness among the Guatemalan intelligentsia. His large library, a part of the University of San Carlos, is especially useful for study of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.

Works
Viento Negro -1938-
La vía enferma -1926-
La divina patoja -1926-
La tapia florida -1927-
Paulita -1939-
El niño ciego -1961-

Awards and Distinctions
Hijo Predilecto de Antigua Guatemala -1947-
Emeritissimum de la Facultad de Humanidades, de la Universidad de San Carlos de Guatemala -1956-
Orden del Quetzal -1958-
Quetzal de Oro, de la Asociación de Periodistas de Guatemala -1961-

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JOSÉ MARTÍ and the Girl of Guatemala


José Martí (1853-1895) Cuban poet, essayist, journalist, translator, professor, and publisher, who is considered a national hero and an important figure in Latin American history, went to Guatemala invited by then-President Miguel Garcia Granados to share his family gathering.

It was around the month of April, 1877, when the arrival of the young master José Martí who came to Guatemala to give a course of literary composition was announced. Coming from Mexico, the handsome and intelligent young man had the opportunity to work in the Cuban academy Margarita Izaguirre in which the young María García Granados, the daughter of the former president and leader of the Liberal Revolution, was present.

As time went on, Mary and Joseph fell in love and consequently developed a great passion between the two. For the unfortunate pupil, the literary master was already committed to Carmen Zayas Bazán. In that same year, Jose returned to Mexico where he contracted marriage with Carmen. This affected young Maria very much and her sadness was evident. Maria reflected a state of deteriorating health, which combined with her sadness, caused her death.

This unfortunate event caused great sadness to José Martí. From this deep sadness the inspiration of the following poem was born:

The Girl of Guatemala


I want, in the shadow of a wing, To tell this story in flower: The girl of Guatemala, The one who died of love.
The branches were of lilies, And the borders of reseda And of jasmine: we buried her In a box of silk.
… She gave to the forgetful One pad of smell: He returned, returned married: She died of love.
They were carrying it on the bishops and ambassadors: Behind the village went in batches, All loaded with flowers.
… She, to see him again, went out to see him at the viewpoint: He returned with his wife: She died of love.
Like red hot bronze To the farewell kiss It was her forehead That I have loved the most in my life!
… She entered the river in the afternoon, the Doctor took her dead: They say that she died of cold: I know that she died of love.
There, in the icy vault, they laid her on two benches: I kissed her sharp hand, I kissed her white shoes.
Silent, at dusk, The burial-worker called me: I have never seen again the girl who died of love!
By José Martí

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